[Two forms of familial hypercholesterolemia: differences in cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac and extracardiac atherosclerosis].

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM The monogenetic hypercholesterolemias (HC) are associated with a very high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to assess the influence of the genetic defect and the cardiovascular risk factors on the manifestation of atherosclerotic complications in two forms of genetic HC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data of patients with genetically defined HC (54 LDL-receptor defective familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 54 familial defective apolipoprotein B (FDB)) were analysed retrospectively for cardiac and extracardiac atherosclerosis. RESULTS Total and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in FH men than in FDB men, but not so in women. 41.8% of FH patients had CHD (mean age 41 years), 5.6% of FDB (mean age 52 years). Stenoses (>50% narrowing) of the internal carotid artery were verified in 15% of FH and 4% of FDB patients. Peripheral arterial disease was found in 3 FH and 2 FDB patients. Hypertension and active smoking were allotted almost equally, body weight was normal in most of the patients (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2)). Conlusion: Patients with genetic HC suffer from early manifestation of cardiac disease. Patients with FH seem to be affected more often than patients with FDB. Early diagnosis and early and lifelong treatment are essential and, according to the literature, lead to a delay of disease manifestation.

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